Cubism is an early 20th century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse and Puteaux) during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s.
The movement was pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris. A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. A retrospective of Cézanne's paintings had been held at the Salon d'Automne of 1904, current works were displayed at the 1905 and 1906 Salon d'Automne, followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907.
In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form-instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.
The impact of Cubism was far-reaching and wide-ranging. Cubism spread rapidly across the globe and in doing so evolved to greater or lesser extent. In essence, Cubism was the starting point of an evolutionary process that produced diversity; it was the antecedent of diverse art movements.
In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract art and later Purism. In other countries Futurism, Suprematism, Dada, Constructivism and De Stijl developed in response to Cubism. Early Futurist paintings hold in common with Cubism the fusing of the past and the present, the representation of different views of the subject pictured at the same time, also called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity, while Constructivism was influenced by Picasso's technique of constructing sculpture from separate elements. Other common threads between these disparate movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, and the association of mechanization and modern life.
- 'Smokers' by Fernand Leger in 1912 £6.99
- 'Abstraction' by Juan Gris in 1915 £6.99
- 'Amedeo Modigliani. Portrait of Juan Gris, detail' £6.99
- 'Grapes, detail' by Juan Gris in 1916 £6.99
- 'Harlequin with Guitar' by Juan Gris in 1919 £6.99
- 'Man in a Café' by Juan Gris in 1913 £6.99
- 'Overlooking the Bay, detail' by Juan Gris £6.99
- 'Portrait of Madame Josette Gris' by Juan Gris £6.99
- 'Portrait of Pablo Picasso, detail' by Juan Gris in 1912 £6.99
- 'Still Life with a Glass, detail' by Juan Gris £6.99
- 'Still Life with Newspaper, detai' by Juan Gris in 1916 £6.99
- 'The Bather' by Kazimir Malevich in 1911 £6.99
- 'The Woodcutter' by Kazimir Malevich in 1912 £6.99
- 'Violin and Guitar' by Juan Gris in 1913 £6.99
- 'Violin and Guitar' by Juan Gris £6.99
- 'Violin and Playing Card on a Table' by Juan Gris £6.99
- 'Violin' by Juan Gris in 1913 £6.99
- 'Wine Jug and Glass' by Juan Gris in 1916 £5.99
- 'Still life with a Guitar, detail' by Juan Gris £6.99
- 'Checkerboard and Playing Cards' by Juan Gris in 1915 £6.99
- 'Coffee Grinder' by Juan Gris in 1920 £6.99
- 'Guitar on a Table' by Juan Gris in 1915 £6.99
- 'Tasset Pipe' by Juan Gris £6.99
- 'The Bordeaux Bottle' by Juan Gris in 1915 £6.99
- 'Still Life before an Open Window' by Juan Gris in 1921 £6.99
- 'Under the Lamp' by Juan Gris £6.99